MALUKA IAS Date: 10th November Sr. No. Topics Points to remember… Why in news…??? 1. Article 20(2) of the Indian Constitution
- The bar of double jeopardy does not arise if an accused was discharged of a criminal offence, even before the commencement of trial, on the basis of an invalid sanction for prosecution, the Supreme Court has held.
- Article 20 (2) of the Constitution mandates that a person cannot be prosecuted or punished twice for the same offence.
- Recently Supreme Court held that “No double jeopardy bar if there was no trial.”
- The judgment is based on an appeal filed by the State of Mizoram against an order passed by the Gauhati High Court in August 2015.
2. M777 ULTRA LIGHT HOWITZER and K9 VAJRA-T GUN M777 ULTRA LIGHT: HOWITZER – It is a 155-mm, 39- calibre towed artillery gun made of titanium and aluminium alloys.
- It has a range of 24 to 30 km, depending on the type of ammunition used.
- The gun weighs four tonnes and can be transported by helicopters.
- The Army has not inducted any artillery gun since the 1980s.
K9 VAJRA-T GUN:
- It is a 155-mm, 52-calibre self-propelled artillery gun with a maximum range of 40km.
- The fire control system has been customised for desert conditions.
- The Army has recently inducted a both types of gun.
3. Zika Virus
- Its detection in Brazil during 2015, observant clinicians began to notice a striking increase in the rates of babies born with microcephaly, a rare neurological condition characterised by underdeveloped brains and undersized heads.
- Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data has indicated that microcephaly, and a range of other birth defects (such as miscarriages and ocular disease) could be caused by the Zika virus passing from a pregnant women to her foetus.
- The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) recently announced that the Zika virus strains causing the outbreak in Jaipur, Rajasthan, cannot cause microcephaly.
- This conclusion was based on a genetic sequencing of viruses isolated from the outbreak.
- An ethnic group that number about a million people on Sulawesi Island – have few qualms when it comes to talking with an embalmed corpse, dressing them up, brushing their hair or even taking pictures with a mummified relative.
- Traditionally the embalming process involved sour vinegar and tea leaves but these days families usually inject a formaldehyde solution into the corpse.
4. Pneumonia, diarrhoea and India.
- India continues to have the highest burden of pneumonia and diarrhoea child deaths in the world, with 158,176 pneumonia and 102,813 diarrhoea deaths in 2016.
- Globally, pneumonia and diarrhoea led to nearly one of every four deaths in children under five years of age in 2016.
- The report analyses how effectively countries are delivering 10 key interventions — breastfeeding, vaccination, access to care, use of antibiotics, oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc supplementation — to help protect against, prevent, and treat, pneumonia and diarrhoea.
- This was stated in the ‘Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report’ released on Friday by the International Vaccine Access Centre (IVAC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
5. Economic Capital Framework
- Existing Economic Capital Framework – which governs the RBI’s capital requirements and terms for the transfer of its surplus to the government – is based on a conservative assessment of risk by the Central Bank and that a review of the framework would result in excess capital being freed, which the RBI can then share with the government.
- Lot of misinformed speculation is going around in media. Governments fiscal math is completely on track. Only proposal under discussion is to fix appropriate economic capital framework of RBI.