- The civilisation developed on the Indus alluvial plain and adjacent regions. At the time, what is now a largely defunct and smaller drainage system, the Ghaggar-Hakra, which lies between the Indus and Ganga watersheds, was also heavily populated. Though the Harappans were agrarians, they reached their “urban peak” or the ‘Mature Phase’ between 4,500 and 3,900 years ago, building architecturally complex urban centres.
- Harappans appear to have invested less effort to control water resources by largescale canal irrigation near cities but relied primarily on fluvial inundation for winter crops and additionally on rain for summer crops.
- Giosan points to the difficulty in finding evidence from soil samples to establish the shift in seasonal rainfall. “We could not use soil samples from Haryana or Punjab because you need to have in those soils a signal that can separate summer vs winter conditions. There is no type of mineral or rock that would form or be transported there only in winter or only in summer.
- The study finds broad spatial and temporal patterns of variability for summer and winter precipitation across the Harappan settlements, it acknowledges that it does not fully consider “local hydroclimate aspects”.
||The Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) by the NITI Aayog
- It shows that 600 million people face high to extreme water stress in India. The report, which was published in association with the Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation and the Ministry of Rural Development, places India at a dismal 120 among 122 countries in the water quality index.
- It predicts that a persistent water crisis will lead to an eventual 6% loss in the country’s Gross Domestic Product by 2030.
- The CWMI report covers these broad themes — ground water and surface-water restoration; major and medium irrigation; watershed development; participatory irrigation management; on-farm water use; rural and urban water supply; and policy and governance.
- The projected water demand of the energy sector makes it an important point for the NITI Aayog to consider while bringing out future iterations of the CWMI.