15th September
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  • Maluka IAS academy

15th September

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MALUKA IAS Date: 15th September

Masala Bonds

  • Masala bonds are rupee-denominated instruments issued abroad by Indian borrowers.
  • The advantage of these bonds is that any depreciation in the rupee will not affect the borrower.

Family Welfare Committees

  • The court had ordered ‘family welfare committees’ to be set up in the districts. 
  • These committees, composed of choice citizens, were supposed to act as a vanguard against “disgruntled wives” using the anti-dowry harassment provision of Section 498-A of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) as a “weapon” against their husbands and in-laws, young and old, rather than a “shield.”
  • Increased emissions of aerosols into the atmosphere due to pollution are beginning to have a definite cooling effect of 1 degree C during the Indian summer monsoon period, a study has found.
  • The increased cooling is seen during the day, while the night time temperature is increasing, thus shrinking the diurnal temperature difference. 

Diurnal Temperature

  • The diurnal temperature difference is what drives the convection process (where water evaporates and reaches the atmosphere as water vapour), and development of clouds.

Rainbow Alliance

  • A global students organisation advocating equal rights and inclusivity for the LGBTQ community.

HDI Report

  • India ranks a low 130 out of 189 countries in the latest human development Index (HDI) released by the United Nations Development Programme, with the findings indicating a glaring inequality in the country though “millions have been lifted out of poverty”.
  • The UNDP report stated that with an HDI value of 0.64 compared to last year’s 0.636, India is categorised as a medium human development and that its rank rose one spot compared to the 2017 HDI.
  • The HDI is the composite measure of every country’s attainment in three basic dimensions: standard of living measured by the gross national income (GNI) per capita, health measured by the life expectancy at birth, and education levels calculated by mean years of education among the adult population and the expected years of schooling for children.
  • Norway at 0.95 has been ranked the highest on the HDI scale while Niger is the bottom at 0.35.


  • India and Russia are discussing the purchase of S-400 Triumf — NATO calls it SA-21 Growler — which is a mobile, surface-to-air missile system (SAM) designed by Russia.
  • It is the most dangerous operationally deployed modern long-range SAM (MLR SAM) in the world, considered much ahead of US-developed Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system (THAAD).

The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)

  • An inter-country organisation, tried to evaluate the state of democracy in the world in the light of such worrying claims. 
  • The Global State of Democracy Index (GSoD) looks at the trends in democratisation from 1975 to 2017. With the help of a set of 98 indicators, IDEA aims to study the factors which threaten democracy throughout the world and those that make it strong and resilient. 
  • The study covers a variety of important indicators such as representative government, fundamental rights, checks on the government, impartial administration and participatory engagement. These have many sub indicators for an in depth indices-based analysis.

Tai chi

  • An ancient martial art to build strength.
  • Tai chi ( and a related exercise called Qigong ) does not resemble the strenuous, gravity-defying karate moves you may have seen in Jackie Chan films. Tai chi moves can be easily learned and executed by people of all ages and states of health, even those in their 90s, in wheelchairs or bedridden.