21st September
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  • Maluka IAS academy

21st September

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Date :- 21st September


  • The term use for cave biologist.

Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Raiganj Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal’s Uttar Dinjapur district has crossed all previous records,recorded 98,532 birds this year. The sanctuary has one of the highest numbers of Openbill stork population not only in India but in Asia and this makes the sanctuary unique. Of the 98,000 birds about 67,000 are Openbill storks. Then there are cormorants, night herons, little egrets, flycatchers, owls and other species.
  • Of the new bird species visiting the sanctuary for the first time in 2018 are the Asian Paradise Flycatcher and Indian Pitta.
  • The sanctuary, which is also known as the Kulik Bird Sanctuary, drawing its name from the river Kulik, attracts a large number of tourists every year, including birdwatchers and wildlife enthusiasts. The sanctuary is home to 164 bird species.

Article 32 of the Indian Constitution

  • Under Article 32, the Supreme Court enforces fundamental rights, for which the accused are expected to seek their remedy under the Code of criminal procedure.

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Prevention and Control) Act

  • The Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Prevention and Control) Act of 2017 safeguards the human rights of people living with HIV and AIDS. 
  • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare issued a notification to bring the Act into force. The Act was born out of an urgent need to prevent and control the virus and syndrome. 
  • It has highlighted the necessity for effective care, support and treatment for HIV and AIDS. 
  • The Act spawns from the commitment to the global community under the Declaration of Commitment on Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (2001) for enhanced coordination and intensification of national, regional and international efforts to combat the virus and syndrome in a comprehensive manner.

Criminal Law and Civil Law 

  • Criminal law is the most direct expression of the relationship between a state and citizens. Criminal sanction is the most coercive method available to the state to regulate the behaviour of an individual. Criminal law’s promise as an instrument of safety is matched only by its power to destroy. 
  • Civil law deals with private wrongs or personal rights — where an individual is harmed and therefore, compensation is considered sufficient. 
  • Criminal law is concerned with situations in which not just an individual is injured, but the well-being of society as a whole is at stake.


  • Muharram marks the new year for Islamic Calendar.