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Date :- 03rd September


Military Agreement
COMCASA (Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement)
  • COMCASA is meant to provide a legal framework for the transfer of communication security equipment from the US to India that would facilitate “interoperability” between their forces and potentially with other militaries that use US-origin systems for secured data links.
  • The general agreement signed by the US is called the Communication and Information on Security Memorandum of Agreement (CISMOA) but the name was changed to COMCASA to reflect its India-specific nature.


Hydropower Dams
  • The Srisailam Projects – Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Nagarjuna Sagar – World’s tallest and largest masnory dam on river Krishna in Telangana.


National Park
  • Orang National Park is also known as Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park located in North bank of Brahmaputra river.


  • India is prone to disaster. About 70% of its coastal areas are prone to tsunamis and cyclones, about 60% of its landmass vulnerable to earthquakes, and 12% of its land to floods.
  • Multi-storied housing is booming in urban India, built on a framework of beams, pillars and brick walls
Indian Constitution
  • Article 17 of the Constitution outlaws the practice of “untouchability”.
  • It is perhaps the only Constitution in the world that declares discrimination based disability an offence.


Smartgram” Project
  • The SMARTGRAM initiative of Rashtrapati Bhavan was inaugurated for five villages of Haryana i.e. Tajnagar, Dhaula, Alipur, Harchandpur and Rojka Meo by the President of India.
  • It was approved that the initiative be extended to 100 villages in the vicinity of the initially selected five village of Haryana.
  • A large number of projects have been undertaken in the initially selected five villages of Haryana under the SMARTGRAM initiative in the fields of agriculture, skill development, energy, education, heath, employment generation, developing entrepreneurship etc.


Construction Industry
  • India’s second largest employment Industry.


Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
  • Mauritius remained the top source of foreign direct investment (FDI) into India in 2017-18 followed by Singapore, whereas total FDI stood at $37.36 billion in the financial year, according to RBI data.


Public Credit Registry
  • A public credit registry is an information repository that collates all loan information of individuals and corporate borrowers.
  • A credit repository helps banks distinguish between a bad and a good borrower and accordingly offer attractive interest rates to good borrowers and higher interest rates to bad borrowers.
  • The move is based on the recommendations of a committee, headed by Y.M. Deosthalee. PCR will address issues such as information asymmetry, improve access to credit and strengthen the credit culture among consumers.
  • It can also address the bad loan problem staring at banks, as corporate debtors will not be able to borrow across banks without disclosing existing debt.
  • A PCR may also help raise India’s rank in the global ease of doing business index.
United Nations-Treaty on Seas
  • United Nations on Tuesday kicked-off talks on a 2020 treaty that would regulate the high seas, which cover half the planet yet lack adequate environmental protection, with the goal of protecting marine biodiversity and avoiding further pillaging of the oceans.
  • In 1982, the UN adopted the Convention on the Law of the Sea, but left the high seas free from restrictions.
  • All States enjoy the traditional freedoms of navigation, overflight, scientific research and fishing on the high seas,” it said.


Monopsony and Amazon effect
  • ‘Monopsony’ and the ‘Amazon effect’ into the lexicon as bankers attempted to substantiate the problem of low wage growth and sluggish investment spending.
  • A monopsony, also called a buyer’s monopoly, is a market condition similar to a monopoly but where a large buyer, and not a seller, controls a sizeable proportion of the market and drives prices down.
  • The Amazon effect has been coined to describe fast-changing pricing algorithms by the online retailer and its rivals, which could potentially lead to bigger swings in inflation — a bugbear for central bankers.



Date :- 04th September


Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Understanding (LEMOA)
  • Logistics agreements are administrative arrangements facilitating access to military facilities for exchange of fuel and provisions on mutual agreement simplifying logistical support and increasing operational turnaround of the military when operating away from India.
  • India signed the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Understanding (LEMOA), with the U.S. in August 2016 after a decade of negotiations.


Charter of Patient’s Rights 
  • The draft, prepared by the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), has been put up on the Health Ministry’s website on August 30 for comments and suggestions.
  • This charter is expected to act as a guidance document for the Union and State Governments to formulate concrete mechanisms so that Patient’s Rights are given adequate protection and operational mechanisms are set up to make these rights functional and enforceable by law.
  • Every patient has the right to receive treatment without any discrimination based on his or her illnesses or conditions, including HIV status or other health condition, religion, caste, ethnicity or sexual orientation.
  • If the draft Charter of Patients’ Rights released by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare comes into force, patients will not just have the right to emergency medical care and informed consent, but will also have the right to non-discrimination, seek a second opinion and choose alternative treatment options, if available.
  • According to the RIGHT TO EDUCATION Act and the Child labour (Prohibition and Regulations) Amendment Act, these out-of-school children fall under the category of child labour.


River Linking Project
  • India’s massive civil engineering project, the National River Linking Project (NRLP). National Water Development Agency, which is implementing the project.



Reserve Bank tightens ombudsman
  • The Reserve Bank of India has tightened the banking ombudsman scheme with the objective to strengthen the grievance redressal mechanism for customers.
  • The banking regulator has asked all commercial banks having 10 or more banking outlets to have an independent internal ombudsman (IO) to review customer complaints that are either partly or fully rejected by the banks.
  • The instructions are not applicable for Regional Rural Banks sponsored by commercial banks.
  • According to bankers, the Internal Ombudsman Scheme of 2018 mandates banks to grant a fixed term of three to five years, which cannot be renewed, to the IO. The IO can be removed only with prior approval from RBI.
  • The remuneration would have to be decided by the customer sub-committee of the board and not by any individual.


Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • The bacteria, known as Staphylococcus epidermidis, is related to the better known and more deadly MRSA superbug.
  • It’s found naturally on human skin and most commonly infects the elderly or patients who have had prosthetic materials implanted, such as catheters and joint replacements
Tribal health in India Bridging the Gap and a Roadmap for the Future
  • The report titled, “Tribal health in India Bridging the Gap and a Roadmap for the Future”, revealed how manpower and infrastructure deficiencies are more acute in tribal areas.
  • The report listed ten health challenges for tribals, including malaria and animal bites.
  • The committee, headed by Dr Abhay Bang, in its report identified ten special tribal health problems — malaria control, reducing malnutrition, reducing child mortality, ensuring safe motherhood and the health of women, providing family planning services and care for infertility, de-addiction and mental health care, sickle cell disease, animal bites, providing health literacy and health of children in ashramshalas (residential schools for tribal children).
  • Malaria in the tribal population is an acute health issue. Tribals constitute 8 per cent of the country’s population, but account for 30 per cent of all malaria cases.
  • At 14.7 per cent of the total tribal population in the country, Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of tribals — more than 1.5 crore. Maharashtra has about 1 crore, Odisha and Rajasthan have 90 lakh each.
Section 497 Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code, which punishes only a man for the offence of adultary, to be made gender-neutral.


  • Leptospirosis is a bacterial infection that is most prevalent in tropical regions, with outbreaks common during floods. It is also called rat fever because it can be transmitted through water contaminated with urine of rats — by drinking that water (or eating contaminated food), through cuts and abrasions, or through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Although the bacteria can be present in many animals — cattle, goat, pigs, dogs — rodents are considered the primary source of infection to human beings; human-to-human transmission is rare, according to the World Health Organization.
  • WHO describes the incubation period of leptospirosis as usually 5-14 days, with a range of 2-30 days. The symptoms can vary from a mild flu-like illness to a sometimes fatal disease; this happens in 5-15% of untreated cases.
  • It is often difficult to diagnose as it can appear to be very similar to dengue, typhoid and viral hepatitis.
  • Leptospirosis can be treated with antibiotics that should be given as early as possible; WHO recommends that clinicians should never wait for the results of laboratory tests.
  • Among preventive measures, it suggests protective clothing (boots, gloves, masks etc), covering skin lesions, and washing after exposure to urine splashes or contaminated soil or water.
  • No vaccines are currently available.
  • This is a measure of country’s trade, when the value of goods and services it imports exceeds the value of goods and services it exports.
  • The current account also includes net income, including interest and dividends, and remittances. A high CAD can create macro-economic vulnerability in an economy, especially affecting stability in currency markets.
  • India’s CAD is typically vulnerable to any rise in international crude oil prices as the country imports around 85% of its oil requirements.
  • Rising global oil prices, when coupled with a sharp depreciation in the rupee, creates a double blow for the CAD as the country’s import bill spikes even though the volume of import may remain the same
Uber Elevate Programme 
  • Uber is pushing for short-trip air mobility services to start as early as 2023. Uber Elevate programme that aims to decongest top cities by offering affordable aerial transportation options.
  • Launched in 2016, Uber Elevate has developed into a partnership of experienced aircraft manufacturers, real estate and technology companies and government agencies like NASA to create aircraft, infrastructure and SOPs for urban air mobility.
  • The plan is to fly eVTOL (electric vertical takeoff and landing) aircraft on distances of around 100 km, at speeds between 150-200 mph and a cruising altitude of 1,000-2,000 feet on a single charge.
  • It announced that one city from among India, Japan, Australia, France and Brazil will be picked as the third international destination for Uber Air flights.


The blend rate
  • The amount of ethanol mixed with petrol. It is only 2-3% in India.


India’s employment elasticity
  • The percentage change in employment associated with one percentage point change in economic growth—compounds the problem.
  • It is low overall, including in relatively high-paying sectors, such as finance and other services


Date :- 05th September
Google to help EC track online Political Ads
  • Google, which controls the lion’s share of the digital advertising market, will soon be helping the Election Commission (EC) keep tabs on online political advertising.
  • The tech giant will develop a mechanism that will not only ensure pre-certification of political advertisements but also enable it to share with the authority, details about the expenditure incurred on its platforms.
  • Google representative met a committee that had been set up to explore possible modifications in Section 126 (election silence) and other provisions of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 in view of the expansion and diversity of media platforms.


State panels to track Hip Implant Patients
  • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has said that State-level committees consisting of two orthopaedic surgeons or physical medical rehabilitation experts and one radiologist from government hospital, a representative from the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) and drug controller of respective States should be formed to identify patients who have received the faulty hip implant by pharmaceutical giant Johnson & Johnson.
  • “The committee [of the Ministry which submitted its report recently] has recommended, among other things, the constitution of [a] Central Expert Committee and Regional Expert Committees for determining the exact quantum of compensation after taking into account the minimum amount of Rs. 20 lakh,” the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (DCA) is woefully inadequate when it comes to victim compensation.
  • The Act problematically presumes even a “device” to be a drug. And it penalises all those who sell adulterated, spurious or sub-standard drugs.
  • It will take a stupendous stretch to argue that a faulty medical device amounts to a “spurious” or “adulterated” drug.


Double Spending Problem
  • This refers to the potential risk that a digital currency unit could be spent more than just once. When a digital currency can be reproduced at a negligible cost, it can lead to users producing several copies of it in order to spend it multiple times.
  • This can cause the supply of the currency to rise and lead to inflation in the prices of goods quoted in the digital currency units.


On a shrinking ‘island’ called Majuli
  • Majuli is the epicentre of the classical Sattriya dance and Bhaona (musical plays soaked in spiritualism) that evolved from the satras or monasteries adhering to the Vaishnavism that the 16th century saint-reformer-playwright Srimanta Sankardeva had established.


Japan to test mini ‘space elevator’
  • It’s the world’s first experiment to test travel between two mini satellites in space.


Lancet study: 34 per cent of Indians insufficiently active
  • The study was undertaken by researchers from World Health Organisation (WHO) and published in the Lancet Global Health journal.
  • At least 34 per cent of India’s population is insufficiently active, according to a new Lancet study published online. The levels of insufficient activity were higher among women at 48 per cent, while the prevalence was 22 per cent among men.
  • The WHO Global Action Plan on Physical Activity (2018-30) provides a selection of policy options targeting different settings and population groups that can be adapted and tailored to local contexts in all countries.


Journey of the MPs’ Code
  • A Code of Conduct for members of Rajya Sabha has been in force since 2005; there is no such code for Lok Sabha.
  • A code for Union ministers was adopted in 1964, and state governments were advised to adopt it as well. A conference of Chief Justices in 1999 resolved to adopt a code of conduct for judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts — this 15-point ‘Re-instatement of Values in Judicial Life’ recommended that serving judges should maintain an air of “aloofness” in their official and personal lives.
  • Rule 293 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Council of States states: “There shall be maintained a ‘Register of Member’s Interests’ in such form as may be determined by the [Ethics] Committee which shall be available to members for inspection on request.”
  • This is accessible to ordinary citizens under the RTI Act.
  • The first Ethics Committee in Lok Sabha could be constituted only on May 16, 2000.


  • Sushrutha is known as the father of plastic surgery.


  • In the 7th century AD, Xuanzang, a Chinese scholar, studied with many famous Buddhist masters at the famous university at Nalanda.
  • When he returned, he carried with him some 657 Sanskrit texts. With the emperor’s support, he set up a large translation bureau in Xi’an with collaborators from all over East Asia.
Launch Station
  • India established it’s first rocket launch station at  Thumba in Kerala.